The Pirahã language and culture seem to lack not only the words but also the concepts for numbers, using instead less precise terms like "small size", "large size" and "collection". And the Pirahã people themselves seem to be suprisingly uninterested in learning about numbers, and even actively resistant to doing so, despite the fact that in their frequent dealings with traders they have a practical need to evaluate and compare numerical expressions.
And we're like this too, he claims; to a very good approximation, we don't have words for information about the distribution of representative samples.
We have these words (the examples he submits are "percentile", "histogram", "standard deviation", "frequency distribution", "variance", and "confidence intervals") but perhaps a hundred thousand or so people in the USA actually understand what these words mean. There are three hundred Piraha; if you pick three hundred Americans, chances are you won't get one who understands this stuff. (I am not quite bored enough to go out on the street and do this study, and even if I did, I live near a university so the data would be skewed.) I suppose that this is true of any specialized field, though, not just statistics.
Notably not among that set of people are the journalists whose job it is to inform other people of these things; as readers of this blog know, this causes much comedy for those of us who do know a little bit about these things.
Although I haven't seriously thought this through, it seems plausible to me that instead of teaching college students who will take one math course calculus, we should teach them statistics; statistics might actually be useful.
Other, larger, languages have the same issue as the Pirahã do, though. It's my impression that there are very few things you can't talk about in English due to a lack of vocabulary. However, I admit that I might not know about these things if they exist -- all the languages I know are either English or have a large number of people who speak the language and English. I've heard that in smaller European languages this isn't the case -- there are things that, say, Norwegian or Catalan just doesn't have the words for, that speakers of those languages might want to talk about. (For example, what do they call the Catalan numbers in Catalan?) This is because in a large language community like English-speakers, someone will want to talk about thing X, even if thing X is rare, but this is less likely to be true in a smaller language community. The usual solution seems to be to borrow words from other languages -- but perhaps small numbers are the sort of things you just can't borrow. (Remember that I'm not a linguist.)