Is there some connection between the etymology of "theorem" and words like "theology" or "theist"?
For "theorem" the OED says: theorem, from the late Latin theorema, from the Greek θεωρημα, spectacle, speculation, theory, (in Euclid) a proposition to be proved, from θεωρειν to be a spectator (θεωροσ), to look at, inspect. (This isn't an exact quote; I've expanded some of the abbreviations, and suppressed some of the accent marks. But if you're the sort of person who could actually answer my question you probably already knew that.)
But for the words where "the-" or "theo-" is god-related, of which there are a lot, it just says things like "from Greek θεοσ, God" and doesn't go any further. And maybe you could imagine that people "look at" or "inspect" God. Of course I recognize that the OED is not the best possible source for these things -- but I'm suspecting that someone in my audience has also noticed this apparent coincidence of words and knows the answer.
(I just want to reiterate that the title "God Plays Dice" is not a religious thing; it's alluding to the quote of Einstein, as I've written before.)