You can actually buy a shirt with the Calkin-Wilf tree on it. I probably should buy it, if only so I can wear it when I inevitably give a talk on this subject again, either as a stand-alone talk (I've done it twice) or when I teach it in a class.
This is an infinite binary tree of rational numbers. It has 1/1 at the root, and the children of r/s are r/(r+s) and (r+s)/s. It turns out that this tree contains every positive rational number exactly once, giving an explicit enumeration of the rational numbers.
Also -- and this is what's really surprising to me -- let f(n) be the number of ways to write n as a sum of powers of 2, where no power of 2 can be used more than twice. Then (f(0), f(1), f(2), ...) = (1,1,2,1,3,2,3,1,4,3,5,2,5,3,4,...). The sequence of numbers f(n)/f(n+1) are the rational numbers in that tree, in the order which they appear if you traverse each level from left to right.
I learned about the shirt from this mathoverflow thread, where Richard Stanley gives the theorem of the previous paragraph as an example of a theorem with an "unexpected conclusion".
See the original paper by Calkin and Wilf. I've mentioned it before here and here. I think I first heard of this paper from Brent Yorgey's series of posts expanding upon the paper, or perhaps from Mark Dominus' blog. (Somewhat coincidentally, Yorgey and Dominus both live in Philadelphia. I claim this is coincidence, even though Wilf is at Penn, because I don't think either of them heard about the paper from Wilf.)
And can anything nice be said about the number of ways to write n as a sum of powers of 3, where no power of 3 can be used more than three times?